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Semiconductor Devices:Physics and Technology【臺大九十週年校慶版】

Semiconductor Devices:Physics and Technology【臺大九十週年校慶版】

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內容簡介

  Offering a basic introduction to physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology, this resource presents students with the theoretical and practical aspects of every step in device characterizations and fabrication, with an emphasis on integrated circuits. Divided into three parts, the text covers the basic properties of semiconductor materials, emphasizing silicon and gallium arsenide; the physics and characteristics of semiconductor devices; bipolar and unipolar special microwave and photonic devices; and the latest processing technologies, from crystal growth to lithographic pattern transfer.
 

作者介紹

作者簡介

S. M. Sze


  S. M. Sze is UMC Chair Professor of the National Chiao Tung University and President of the National Nano Device Laboratories, Taiwan, R.O.C. For many years he was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories. Professor Sze is the co-inventor of nonvolatile semiconductor memory. He has written numerous texts on device physics, including PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES, considered a reference classic. In 1991, he received the IEEE J. J. Ebers award for his “fundamental and pioneering contributions to semiconductor devices.” He received his PhD in solid-state electronic from Stanford University in 1963.
 

目錄

「慶祝國立臺灣大學創校九十週年選輯」總序╱王泰升
Preface
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
 1.1 Semiconductor Devices
 1.2 Semiconductor Technology
      Summary
 
PART I SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS
 
CHAPTER 2 Energy Bands and Carrier Concentration in Thermal Equilibrium
 2.1 Semiconductor Materials
 2.2 Basic Crystal Structure
 2.3 Basic Crystal Growth Technique
 2.4 Valence Bonds
 2.5 Energy Bands
 2.6 Intrinsic Carrier Concentration
 2.7 Donors and Acceptors
      Summary
CHAPTER 3 Carrier Transport Phenomena
 3.1 Carrier Drift
 3.2 Carrier Diffusion
 3.3 Generation and Recombination Processes
 3.4 Continuity Equation
 3.5 Thermionic Emission Process
 3.6 Tunneling Process
 3.7 High-Field Effects
      Summary
 
PART II SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
 
CHAPTER 4 p-n Junction
 4.1 Basic Fabrication Steps
 4.2 Thermal Equilibrium Condition
 4.3 Depletion Region
 4.4 Depletion Capacitance
 4.5 Current-Voltage Characteristics
 4.6 Charge Storage and Transient Behavior
 4.7 Junction Breakdown
 4.8 Heterojunction
      Summary
CHAPTER 5 Bipolar Transistor and Related Devices
 5.1 The Transistor Action
 5.2 Static Characteristics of Bipolar Transistor
 5.3 Frequency Response and Switching of Bipolar Transistor
 5.4 The Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
 5.5 The Thyristor and Related Power Devices
      Summary
CHAPTER 6 MOSFET and Related Devices
 6.1 The MOS Diode
 6.2 MOSFET Fundamentals
 6.3 MOSFET Scaling
 6.4 CMOS and BiCMOS
 6.5 MOSFET on Insulator
 6.6 MOS Memory Structures
 6.7 The Power MOSFET
      Summary
CHAPTER 7 MESFET and Related Devices
 7.1 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
 7.2 MESFET
 7.3 MODFET
      Summary
CHAPTER 8 Microwave Diodes, Quantum-Effect, and Hot-Electron Devices
 8.1 Basic Microwave Technology
 8.2 Tunnel Diode
 8.3 IMPATT Diode
 8.4 Transferred-Electron Devices
 8.5 Quantum-Effect Devices
 8.6 Hot-Electron Devices
      Summary
CHAPTER 9 Photonic Devices
 9.1 Radiative Transitions and Optical Absorption
 9.2 Light-Emitting Diodes
 9.3 Semiconductor Laser
 9.4 Photodetector
 9.5 Solar Cell
      Summary
 
PART III SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
 
CHAPTER 10 Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
 10.1 Silicon Crystal Growth from the Melt
 10.2 Silicon Float-Zone Process
 10.3 GaAs Crystal-Growth Techniques
 10.4 Material Characterization
 10.5 Epitaxial-Growth Techniques
 10.6 Structures and Defects in Epitaxial Layers
        Summary
CHAPTER 11 Film Formation
 11.1 Thermal Oxidation
 11.2 Dielectric Deposition
 11.3 Polysilicon Deposition
 11.4 Metallization
        Summary
CHAPTER 12 Lithography and Etching
 12.1 Optical Lithography
 12.2 Next-Generation Lithographic Methods
 12.3 Wet Chemical Etching
 12.4 Dry Etching 431
 12.5 Microelectromechanical Systems 443
        Summary
CHAPTER 13 Impurity Doping
 13.1 Basic Diffusion Process
 13.2 Extrinsic Diffusion
 13.3 Diffusion-Related Processes
 13.4 Range of Implanted Ions
 13.5 Implant Damage and Annealing
 13.6 Implantation-Related Processes
        Summary
CHAPTER 14 Integrated Devices
 14.1 Passive Components
 14.2 Bipolar Technology
 14.3 MOSFET Technology
 14.4 MESFET Technology
 14.5 Challenges for Microelectronics
        Summary
 
APPENDIX A List of Symbols
APPENDIX B International Systems of Units (SI Units)
APPENDIX C Unit Prefixes
APPENDIX D Greek Alphabet
APPENDIX E Physical Constants
APPENDIX F Properties of Important Element and Binary Compound Semiconductors at 300 K
APPENDIX G Properties of Si and GaAs at 300 K
APPENDIX H Derivation of the Density of States in a Semiconductor
APPENDIX I Derivation of Recombination Rate for Indirect Recombination
APPENDIX J Calculation of the Transmission Coefficient for a Symmetric Resonant-Tunneling Diode
APPENDIX K Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases
APPENDIX L Answers to Selected Problems
Index
 
 

「慶祝國立臺灣大學創校九十週年選輯」總序

  國立臺灣大學的前身,是成立於1928年的臺北帝國大學,今年(2018)適逢台大創校九十週年。九十年,於個人而言,是高壽;但對一所大學來說,應屬「年輕」。回顧台大過往的九十年,校園外大環境的政治、社會變遷極為鉅大;校園內的建制、組織、空間也隨著時空變化,有延續也有更替。台大從初始的文政與理農兩個學部、第一屆學生59人,在數個世代、全校師生的共同耕耘之下,逐步茁壯發展。一代代的莘莘學子,在傅鐘聲裡入學,於椰林樹影中畢業,如今的台大已成為11個學院、3個專業學院的綜合型研究大學,學生3萬3千多人,不僅是台灣第一學府、高等教育的代表,也是國際知名大學,更是引領台灣社會發展的動力源頭。

  作為台大一級行政單位的出版中心,要如何慶祝本校創校九十週年?

  很自然地,我們會從出版的角度來思考這件事。我們認為,大學存在的兩大目標,一是追求真理,一是作育英才;反映在出版品上,前者是學術研究的成果――學術著作,後者是教學必備工具――教科書。因而,我們特別從這兩個角度,精選自1928年迄今具有代表性、屬經典之作的學術著作與具創新、影響力的教科書共10種,以「慶祝國立臺灣大學創校九十週年選輯」為套書名稱(以下簡稱「選輯」),予以出版,以資慶祝。選輯的作者,限於現任或曾任台大的教師或畢業之校友。

  九十年來的台大,曾醞釀出無數優秀的學者、名師,也為國家社會培養出眾多傑出人才。他們的著作,在各自的學術領域中稱得上是重要者,多不勝數。要從中選出具「代表性」、「影響力」的作品,並不容易。為慎重起見,出版中心敦請校內各領域的學者,成立一專責的編輯委員會。編輯委員會成員有:高涌泉(理學院物理學系教授、科學教育發展中心主任)、張育森(生物資源暨農學院園藝暨景觀學系教授)、郭瑞祥(管理學院工商管理學系教授、管理學院院長)、陳光華(文學院圖書資訊學系教授、圖書館館長)、陳為堅(公共衛生學院公共衛生學系教授)、陳弱水(文學院歷史學系教授)、謝尚賢(工學院土木工程學系教授、系主任)、蘇國賢(社會科學院社會學系教授、社會科學院院長),以及擔任出版中心主任的本人(法律學院科際整合法律學研究所教授)。

  選書的程序,分為兩個階段。第一階段,確定推薦書單,主要是透過三種方式蒐集:一、請本校各學院推薦其學院所屬領域符合上揭期待的學術著作或教科書,至多三本;二、出版中心就各重要學術領域,從歷年出版及代銷的書目中,羅列出符合前述要求者;三、編委會的編委,亦可補充推薦。有了推薦書單之後,進入第二階段,由編委們從推薦書單中挑選出最終的10種書。第一階段產生出的推薦書單共計43種,其中各學院及出版中心推薦者39種,編委補充推薦者4種。接著,由出版中心召開編委會議,委員們共聚一堂,選出最終書單。因選輯著重在作者與著作本身對台大及該學術領域的「經典之作」,編委們第一步就先排除了圖鑑、工具書、事典等形式的著作,再就所剩書單逐一討論,最終選出10種書,依各書之初版日期可排列如下:

  •《增補水稻耕種法講演》(磯永吉著,日文)
  •《沒有顏色的思想:殷海光與自由主義讀本》(殷海光著)
  •《管理學》(許士軍著)
  •《經濟學:理論與實際》(張清溪、許嘉棟、劉鶯釧、吳聰敏著)
  •《公共衛生學》(王榮德、江東亮、陳為堅、詹長權編)
  •《程序制度機能論》(民事程序法之理論與實務 第一卷)(邱聯恭著)
  •Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology (2nd Edition)(施敏著)
  •《華人心理的本土化研究》(楊國樞著)
  •《中國文學史》(臺靜農著)
  •《跨國灰姑娘:當東南亞幫傭遇上台灣新富家庭》(藍佩嘉著)

  上述10種書,皆在各自的學術領域有其重要性與深遠影響力。書單中,學術著作5種,文集1種,教科書4種;部分教科書因有分冊,故選輯總數是10種13冊。在編輯上,選輯皆保留各書的原有內容,重新裝幀設計出版,有幾種因授權緣故為限量發行。要特別說明的是:磯永吉的《增補水稻耕種法講演》,是作為台北帝大時期的代表作收入選輯,以日文複刻方式出版,為選輯中唯一的直排書。臺靜農的《中國文學史》,之前曾收入「臺大出版中心20週年選輯」,這次編委們一致認為臺老師的著作不應在這個重要的選輯中缺席,出版中心在編輯上特別把它上下冊合而為一,且配合晚近學界的習慣採取橫排的方式,內容雖同但版本有異,提供讀者另一選擇。殷海光的著作,原本列在推薦書單上是他的《中國文化的展望》,但經討論,決議選錄殷海光關於自由主義的重要文章輯為一冊,以彰顯這位1950、1960年代台灣自由主義的開山人物。藍佩嘉的《跨國灰姑娘》是編委們討論的另一熱點,主因它是最近的出版品(2008),最後仍決定收入選輯以彰顯學術傳承之意義。

  這套選輯中,有的是作者自行出版的書,有的則是其他出版社擁有出版權。對出版中心而言,最大的困難處是取得作者或出版社的同意,讓我們收入選輯。出乎意料的是,洽談過程極為順利,不論是作者或是出版社,都非常願意並隨即同意授權給出版中心,讓我們得以出版發行。在此,我要代表出版中心向選輯的作者及同意授權的出版社(單位),致上最誠摯的謝意。他們是:磯永吉學會;臺益公先生;邱聯恭教授;楊國樞及居中聯絡的瞿海源兩位教授,以及桂冠出版社;藍佩嘉教授及行人出版社;殷海光基金會;施敏教授及John Wiley & Sons出版社;許士軍教授及東華出版社;張清溪、許嘉棟、吳惠林(劉鶯釧著作財產權繼承人)、吳聰敏等四位教授;陳拱北基金會。沒有他們的熱心幫忙與慨允,這套選輯不可能在台大九十週年校慶時順利出版。

  透過這套書的出版,我們期盼:它能呈現九十年來台大在學術研究及教學上,對人類知識及社會國家的貢獻。同時,它也是對獻身於研究、教學的作者個人成就的最佳禮讚。當然,對出版中心本身而言,這套書的出版另具有「標竿出版品」的意義。它不只是我們的出版目標,也展現了努力與堅持的方向!

王泰升(臺大出版中心主任)

Preface

  The book is an introduction to the physical principles of modern semiconductor devices and their advanced fabrication technology. It is intended as a textbook for undergraduate students in applied physics, electrical and electronics engineering, and materials science. It can also serve as a reference for practicing engineers and scientists who need an update on device and technology developments.

  TOPICAL COVERAGE

  • Chapter 1 gives a brief historical review of major semiconductor devices and key technology developments. The text is then organized into three parts.

  • Part I, Chapters 2-3, describes the basic properties of semiconductors and their conduction processes, with special emphasis on the two most important semiconductors: silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). The concepts in Part I will be used throughout this book. These concepts requires a background knowledge of modern physics and college calculus.

  • Part II, Chapters 4-9, discusses the physics and characteristics of all major semiconductor devices. We begin with the p-n junction which is the key building block of most semiconductor devices. We proceed to bipolar and field-effect devices and then cover microwave, quantum-effect, hot-electron, and photonic devices.

  • Part III, Chapters 10-14, deals with processing technology from crystal growth to impurity doping. We present the theoretical and practical aspects of the major steps in device fabrication with an emphasis on integrated devices.

  KEY FEATURES

  Each chapter includes the following features:

  • The chapter starts with an overview of the topical contents. A list of learning goals is also provided.

  • The second edition has tripled the worked-out examples that apply basic concepts to specific problems.

  • A chapter summary appears at the end of each chapter to summarize the important concepts and to help the student review the content before tackling the homework problems that follow.

  • The book includes about 250 homework problems, over 50% of them new to the second edition. Answers to odd-numbered problems, which have numerical solutions are provided in Appendix L at the back of the book.

  COURSE DESIGN OPTIONS

  The second edition can provide greater flexibility in course design. The book contains enough material for a full-year sequence in device physics and processing technology. Assuming three lectures per week, a two-semester sequence can cover Chapters 1-7 in the first semester, leaving Chapters 8-14 for the second semester. For a three-quarter sequence, the logical break points are Chapters 1-5, Chapters 6-9, and Chapters 10-14.

  A two-quarter sequence can cover Chapters 1-5 in the first quarter. The instructor has several options for the second quarter. For example, covering Chapters 6, 11, 12, 13, and 14 produces a strong emphasis on the MOSFET and its related process technologies, while covering Chapters 6-9 emphasizes all major devices. For a one-quarter course on semiconductor device processing, the instructor can cover Section 1.2 and Chapters 10 -14.

  A one-semester course on basic semiconductor physics and devices can cover Chapters 1-7. A one-semester course on microwave and photonic devices can cover Chapters 1-4, 7-9. If the students already have some familiarity with semiconductor fundamentals, a one-semester course on Submicron MOSFET: Physics and Technology can cover Chapters 1, 6, 10-14. Of course, there are many other course design options depending on the teaching schedule and the instructor’s choice of topics.

  TEXTBOOK SUPPLEMENTS

  • Instructor’s Manual. A complete set of detailed solutions to all the end-of chapter problems has been prepared. These solutions are available free to all adopting faculty.

  • The figures used in the text are available, in electronic format, to instructors from the publisher. Instructors can find out more information at the publisher’s website at: www.wiley.com/college/sze
 
 

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