潘默士 Primoz Parovel (手風琴)
● 潘默士 2018 年最新錄音專輯。
Primož Parovel 潘默士, 1975出=生生於斯洛維尼亞（Celje Slovenia), 9歲由Zdenka Šindič教授啓蒙，開始手風琴的學習歷程，之後在首都Ljubljana的音樂院跟隨Ernö Sebastian 教授繼續精淬琴藝。19歲時轉往德國Franz Liszt 音樂院師事Ivan Koval教授，接著於芬蘭Sibelius音音樂院入Matti Rantanen教授門下，並且在德國音樂院受教於Stefan Hussong 教授,最終以極優異的成績在音樂院取得博士學位。
求學期間，他相當活躍於各大師班，和許多世界知名的大師請益，如 Hugo Noth, Fried- rich Lips, Teodoro Anzellotti, Mie Miki, Oleg Scharow, Egbert Spelde等，也同時享有許多著名學術機構的獎學金，如德國D.A.A.D基金會，斯洛維尼亞文化部，斯洛維尼亞The Gallus 基金會，斯洛維尼亞Ljubljana市基金會等。除此之外，在古典樂界定期接受Jeunesses Musicales Slovenia的贊助。
1999年贏得第36屆德國Klingenthal國際手風琴大賽第三名。2004年在西班牙Arrasate拔得頭籌，成為第12屆"Arrasate Hiria" 國際手風琴大賽首獎得主。
他經常以獨奏家之姿或室內樂成員橫跨歐洲、亞洲、加拿大演出,合作的世界知名樂團如下：MDR Sinfonie Orchester，Philharmoni- sches Orchester Erfurt, Slovenian Philharmo- nic Orchestra, Pro Arte Orchestra, 臺灣國家交響樂團，台灣愛樂交響樂團，首爾愛樂交響樂團……。為了展現精彩美妙的室內樂給聽眾，他廣結同好，和他合奏的各國音樂家有臺灣大提琴家呂超倫，小提琴家林淑敏，蔡明儀，陳必昭, 葉哲睿, 女高音陳心瑩，斯洛維尼亞小提琴家 Tomaž Lorenz,吉他演奏家Nejc Kuhar以及 Jerko Novak, 德國薩克斯風演奏家Christoph Kirschke,瑞士大提琴家Imke Frank, 法國大提琴家 Joel Schatzmann,奧地利鋼琴家Roland Batik,日本鋼琴家 Satoko Uchida 以及Satoko Inoue。Primoz Parovel 潘默士曾經是 Trio Ecco (sax,acc,vc) 和 Trio Viribus Unitis (vl,git,acc)這兩個德國室內樂團的成員之一。
在世界知名的音樂廰及音樂節演出如下：德國柏林愛樂音樂廳，Gewandhaus Leipzig, Erfurt Theater, Debut Auf Deutschland Radio Kultur, 斯洛維尼亞愛樂音樂廳，Cankarjev Dom Cultural and Congress Center, Ljubljana, 加拿大Montmagny國際手風琴藝術節，韓國首爾愛樂音樂廳，台北國家音樂廳，International Workshop on Computer and Audio Technology & France-Taiwan Orchid Project IRCAM,台中歌劇院……。才華洋溢的Primoz Parovel 潘默士 演奏曲目涵蓋極廣，從早期巴洛克到當代，無論獨奏或是室內樂他都游刃有餘，首演了超過30首的現代新作品，合作的作曲家有潘皇龍，曾興魁，李子聲，蘇凡凌，黃志方，加拿大籍 C. Laplante, 英籍 M. Vaughan,德籍 V. Heyn, M. Ockert, H. Muenz, 瑞士籍R.Kelteborn, 斯洛維尼亞籍U. Rojko, T. Vulc, V. Avsec, U. Pompe,韓籍 H. Lim,日籍N. Kawakami,以色列籍C. Czernowin……。
他為斯洛維尼亞電台及電視台錄製了好幾首音樂作品，並且發行了他的獨奏CD Obcutja/Feelings 完美呈現出手風琴在20世紀獨特創作的樂音，另外CD”Amore,amore…”手風琴和女高音吟唱,扣人心弦,百聽不厭!
手風琴是屬於「活動簧片」的樂器。這種發聲物理原理取自於簧片受到空氣及周圍的氣流收縮所造成的結果。早期由Michael Protaerious 在他的著作「Syntama Musicum」中有記載。其實在1792年，莫札特的時代，Abbot Vogler有將這種原理運用在管風琴內。在這之前，簧片都只是由撥奏而發聲，和現在的手風琴發聲方式不太相同。手風琴，經過多次改良後，控制簧片發聲的方式比較精細，以致於氣音不再這麼明顯。手風琴的發聲方式最終還是歸朔到2700 BC 中國樂器「笙」。 手風琴的發聲方式是氣流藉由壓與拉的方式,在簧片由金屬固定的狀況下發聲。此樂器根據歷史，推測是在13世紀，由馬克波羅帶入中亞，或是由塔塔族人和俄羅斯人在遷移人口的時期帶入的。在這張專輯裡所使用的鍵鈕手風琴其右手是5個半的八度，左手則有四排的按鈕。雖然此樂器配置可以和雙層鍵盤(two-manual) 手風琴媲美，但是其聲音特色還是較類似於管樂。左手「單音系統」自由低音手風琴是在20世紀初發明的。此種手風琴已經不需要再轉調或改譜就可以演奏。自1927年實行這個結構改良後，提供作曲家和手風琴家的便利性，順利將手風琴推廣於當代以及未來的藝術發展。
Primož Parovel was born in 1975 in Celje, Slovenia. He started to play accordion at the age of 9 with prof. Zdenka Šindič and continued his education at Conservatory for music and ballet in Ljubljana with prof. Ernö Sebastian. As a 19 years old student he went to Weimar (DE), where he studied with prof. Ivan Koval at Franz Liszt academy of Music. He made his doctoral studies with prof. Matti Rantanen at Sibelius academy of music (FIN) and with prof. Stefan Hussong at Würzburg academy of music (DE). During his study he actively participated in master classes with other renowned professors like prof. Hugo Noth, prof. Friedrich Lips, prof. Teodoro Anzellotti, prof. Mie Miki, prof. Oleg Scharow and prof. Egbert Spelde.
He has received scholarships from the D.A.A.D. Foundation (DE), the Slovene Foundation of the Cultural Ministry (SLO), the Gallus Foundation (SLO) and the City Ljubljana Foundation (SLO). He has also been regularly supported by Jeunesses Musicales Slovenia helping him to establish in classical music scene.
He is the Winner of the 12th “Arrasate Hiria” International Accordion Competition in Arrasate (ES) 2004 and 3rd Prize Winner of the 36th International Accordion Competition in Klingenthal (DE) in 1999.
He regularly performs as a soloist or chamber music partner in concerts across Europe, Canada and Asia. He cooperated with established orchestras from Europe and Asia: MDR Sinfonie Orchester, Philharmonisches Orchester Erfurt, Slovenian Philharmonic Orchestra, National Symphony Orchestra Taiwan, Pro Arte Orchestra, Taiwan Philharmonic Orchestra, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra… He performed in different chamber music ensembles with other musicians: Tomaz Lorenz (SLO, vln), Pi-Chao Chen (TW, vln), Shumin Lin (TW, vln), Natalie Tsai (TW, vln), Che-jui Yeh (TW, vln), Christoph Kirschke (DE, sax), Imke Frank (CH, vc), Joel Schatzmann (FR, vc), Tsaolun Lu (TW, vc), Roland Batik (AUT, pno), Satoko Uchida (JP, pno), Satoko Inoue (JP, pno), Hsin-Ying Chen (TW, soprano), Nejc Kuhar (SLO, git.), Jerko Novak (SLO, git). He was a part of ensembles Trio Ecco (DE, sax, acc, vc) and Trio Viribus Unitis (vl, git, acc).
He performed in festivals and famous halls like: Berlin Philharmonic Hall (DE), Gewandhaus Leipzig (DE), Theater Erfurt (DE), Cankarjev Dom cultural and congress center Ljubljana (SLO), Slovenian Philharmonic Hall (SLO), “Carrefour mondial de l’ accordéon“ in Montmagny (CA), “Debut auf Deutschland Radio Kultur” (DE), International Workshop on Computer and Audio Technology & France- Taiwan Orchid Project IRCAM (TW), National Hall Taipei (TW), Seoul Philharmonic Hall (ROC), National Taichung Theatre (TW)…
Primoz Parovel repertoire covers a wide range of styles from early baroque to contemporary for which he has premièred over 30 new compositions for solo accordion or chamber music with accordion by composers: C. Laplante (CA), M. Vaughan (EN), V. Heyn (DE), M. Ockert (DE), H. Muenz (DE), R. Kelteborn (CH), U. Rojko (SLO), T. Vulc (SLO), U. Pompe (SLO), V. Avsec (SLO), H. Lim (ROK), H.L. Pan (TW), S.K. Tzeng (TW), T.S. Lee (TW), F.L. Su (TW), J. Huang (TW), N. Kawakami (JP) and C. Czernowin (ISR)….
He made several recordings for Radio and TV Slovenia and published his solo CD Obcutja/Feelings presenting compositions of 20th century for accordion and CD “Amore, amore…” presenting works for soprano and accordion.
In 2004 the Academy of Music in Ljubljana conferred him a title "assistant professor for accordion". He taught at Academy of Music in Ljubljana (SLO) accordion as a major subject (2009-2012) and National Hsinchu University of Education (TW) (2008-2017). He currently teaches at Tsing-hua University (TW). He was a guest professor in NTNU (2014-2015) and in NHCUE (2016) in Taiwan.
He gave lectures and master classes in many universities in Asia: National Taiwan Normal University, National Taipei University of Arts, National Chiao Tung University, Taipei Municipal University of Education, National Taiwan University of Arts, Music Department of Tunghai University, National Hsin-Chu University, School of Continuing Education Chinese Culture University and in University of the Philippines, Manila.
He was a jury member at established accordion competitions like: Citta di Castelfidardo 2011 (ITA), International competition “Zvezdane staze” 2011 (SRB), International Accordion Competition 2012 in Sydney (AUS), International competition in Harbin 2016 (CHN).
His accordion major students received many first prizes on major international competitions in the world in the category concert soloists.
The accordion employs the so-called "free reed" principle of tone production first described by Michael Praetorius in his treatise entitled "Syntagma Musicum". Abbot Vogler, a contemporary of Mozart’s, was the first to install it in an organ in 1792, until which time this tone production principle was only known by plucking a reed (regal). Vogler built the register into an organ pipe as a suspended tuned reed. The sounding effect is not unlike that of the modern accordion, except that the accordion’s air supply can be much more subtly regulated by using the so-called bellows, thus making the air-stream inaudible. The "free reed" principle, i.e. tiny metal plates set in vibration by a stream of air, originated in China and can be traced back as far as 2700 B.C., when it was used in an instrument called the "Sheng". This Chinese instrument was either brought to Central Europe by Marco Polo in the 13th century or else it found its way there with the Tartars via Russia during the migration of the peoples. The instrument used in this recording, in addition to having a manual for the right hand (with a range of 5 1/2 octaves), also has four rows of press-studs with chromatic single tones for the left hand (a so-called single tone manual, range 5 1/ 2 octaves). Hence it is somewhat comparable in principle to a two-manual keyboard instrument such as the two-manual organ or two-manual cembalo, yet in its production and manipulation of tone is more similar to a wind instrument. The single-tone left-hand manual origins date back as far as the beginning of the twentieth century. It is only the single-tone manual that enables the player to use both hands at the actual written pitch levels, so that transcriptions of music not originally composed for the accordion are possible without "arranging" or altering the score. The increasing popularity of this type of instrument since about 1927 has provided an incentive for more and more contemporary composers to write for the accordion.
Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (1660-1725) was the sixth of ten children of Alessandro Scarlatti, the founder of the Neapolitan school of 18th century opera. Domenico became one of the great geniuses of his time and the first real virtuoso of the keyboard interestingly, he was born a few months after the other two great masters of his era, G. F. Händel and J. S. Bach.
While the latter two are representative of the High Baroque, in Scarlatti we find the first significant examples of a new dramatic style of composition that would reach its full development in the works of such Classical giants as Haydn and Mozart. Although he wrote a good amount of operas and other vocal works, following in his father’s footsteps, Domenico is chiefly remembered in our day for the vast number of piquant and delightful harpsichord pieces that he wrote. Most of these are in the short form described then as "Sonata," which, however, bears no resemblance to the subsequent sonata form developed later by Haydn and Mozart and perfected by Beethoven. Of these he left over 600.
Scarlatti’s sonatas consist of only two short sections that are repeated. He used many difficult and daring devices such as rapidly repeated notes, skips, trills, and intricate hand crossings. Technically speaking, not until Chopin was a milestone reached of comparable significance in the evolution of piano keyboard playing.