In 1989 the late Prof Michael Beesley and Prof David Hensher convened a workshop of an invitational group of academics, transport operators and government regulators to review and report on the recent reforms in the British bus sector. The workshop was held in Thredbo, Australia. At the time this was a once off activity. Its success was such that it spawned a series of biannual conferences (now known as the Thredbo series) held in Finland (1991), Canada (1993), New Zealand (1995), England (1997), South Africa (1999), Norway (2001), Brasil (2003) and Portugal (2005). The conference series attracts a unique mix of researchers and practitioners with the common aim to share their experiences throughout the world on topics related to the institutional reform of land passenger transport (especially bus, rail and ferry). The focus is on workshops and plenary sessions in which participants are engaged in intense discussions that lead to the production of workshop reports that set the agenda for reform for the next period between the conferences. In the past workshop reports have been published in a major international journal and selected papers in special issues of journals. The growing number of citations of the material from the thredbo series has motivated this book, providing an opportunity to bring together in one volume the best papers from the conference plus the workshop reports. All chapters have been peer refereed. The themes in this volume (the first in a new series) include competition and regulation, contract specifications (especially performance-based contracts), regulatory and planning tools, institutional frameworks, service quality and pricing and performance data and measurement. Within one volume we provide a comprehensive update and review of the reform programs throughout the world in the land passenger transport sector. The volume is edited by Professor David Hensher, co-founder of the series and a recognized world authority in the field. It is the most current global assessment of reforms in land passenger transport. It contains papers written by those who influence policy and institutional reform in over 20 countries. It presents a comprehensive statement of the successes and failures in public transport reform. Many of the authors are regarded as the leading authorities in the field. The case studies throughout the world are not available in any other single source.