At the turn of the millennium, the world experienced a dramatic increase in funding for global health programs. Competing demands for these resources meant that policymakers needed access to valid, evidence-based information on the costs and consequences of a broad range of health interventions. By providing systematic and comparable information about purchasing health in LMICs, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition greatly informed and enriched these conversations and – we hope -- improved resource allocations. Nearly ten years later, increased attention to chronic diseases and the importance of health systems in providing access to quality care is once again reshaping the global health landscape. Low- and middle-income countries are continuing to set priorities for funding and deploying specific interventions, but with a greater appreciation for the contribution of program and economic evaluation to informed decision-making. The need to make decisions across an increasingly complex set of policy and intervention choices, attuned to specific health system capabilities, makes a third iteration of Disease Control Priorities all the more critical. Similar to the first and second editions of Disease Control Priorities (DCP1 and DCP2), the aim of the third edition (DCP3) is to influence program design and resource allocation at global and country levels by providing an up-to-date comprehensive review of the effectiveness of priority health interventions. It presents systematic and comparable economic evaluations of selected interventions, delivery platforms, and policies based on newly developed economic methods. DCP3 further expands on the scope of intervention assessments found in DCP1 and DCP2 by presenting findings in nine individual volumes. It is clear that optimal global health programming requires a comprehensive evidence-base to help determine what works, what does not, how much it will cost. DCP3 will allow users to set global and national priorities for health in an informed manner.