The book begins with an in-depth survey of coagulation-fragmentation models, followed by a detailed presentation of relevant earlier results in the field. The mathematical tools necessary for the modern development of the theory as well as essential facts from infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, are introduced. The next few chapters are devoted to methods suitable to cases where the process is dominated by fragmentation. The following chapter focuses on weak compactness methods for solving coagulation-fragmentation equations. The final chapter deals with the long-term asymptotic behaviour of solutions to coagulation and fragmentation equations.