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13.1 句子的概述與分類

句子是由一定的語法結構組成,能表達一個完整的意思的一組詞。句子開頭詞的第一個字母要大寫,句尾要有句號、問號或感嘆號等。句子按其結構可劃分為三種類型:簡單句、連接句和從屬連接句。

1. 簡單句
由一個主詞(或者並列主詞)和一個動詞構成的句子稱為簡單句。其基本句型有以下六種:


(1) 主詞(S)+不及物動詞(V)
The sun rises in the east.
太陽從東方升起。

The moon turns round the sun.
月亮繞著太陽轉。

(2) 主詞(S)+及物動詞(V)+受詞(O)
She watches TV every evening.
她每天晚上都會看電視。

He has read the book many times.
這本書他看過很多次了。

(3) 主詞(S)+連綴動詞(V)+主詞補語(P)
This story is about a musician.
這本書寫的是一位音樂家的故事。

These roses smell sweet.
這些玫瑰花聞起來很香。

(4) 主詞(S)+及物動詞(V)+間接受詞(IO)+直接受詞(DO)
The evening dress cost her two hundred dollars.
這件晚禮服花了她200美元。

He showed his card to the guard.
他向保全出示了他的證件。

(5) 主詞(S)+及物動詞(V)+受詞(O)+受詞補語(OC)
The news makes him happy.
這個消息讓他很開心。

They named their son Henry.
他們給兒子取名叫亨利。

He asked me to have dinner with him.
他讓我與他共進晚餐。

We watched the train leaving the station.
我們看著火車離開車站。

I heard him come in.
我聽到他走進來了。

We had the machine repaired.
我們找人把機器修好了。

I think it difficult to finish the work this month.
我認為要在這個月內完成這項工作有點困難。

(6) There be+主詞(S)+副詞(adverbial clause)
There are two birds in the tree.
樹上有兩隻鳥。

There is a horse and two cows behind the farm.
農場後面有一匹馬、兩頭牛。

There will be a sports meet next week.
下星期將舉行運動會。

2. 連接句
由對等連接詞and, so, but, or等把兩個或者兩個以上的簡單句連在一起而構成的句子稱為連接句。


He is an engineer and his sister is a teacher.
他是一名工程師,他姐姐是一名教師。

Think it over again and youll find a way out.
再好好想想,你就會有辦法的。

He would like to go, but he cant.
他想去但不能去。

The car was old, but it was in excellent condition.
這輛車很舊,但還可以開。

Now I must go, or I shall be late for the party.
我必須先走了,不然晚會我可能會遲到。

A body must move, or no work is done.
物體必須移動,否則就沒有做功。
It must have rained, for the ground is wet.

地上是濕的,剛剛一定有下過雨。
Youd better put on your sweater, for its rather cold outside.

你最好把毛衣穿好,因為外面很冷。

Our country has plenty of oil, but theirs has none.
我們的國家有豐富的石油,可是他們的國家沒有。

You have a good command of English but my English is very poor.
你的英文很好,可是我的很差。

My sister is expecting me, so I must be off now.
我得走了,姐姐在等我。

I packed him a little food, so he wouldnt be hungry.
我給他外帶了一些東西給他吃,這樣他就不會餓了。

I felt very tired, so I went to bed early.
我覺得很累,所以很早就睡了。

It snowed; therefore the game was put off.
比賽因下雪而延後。

3. 從屬連接句
由一個主句和一個或者一個以上的子句構成的句子稱為從屬連接句,從屬連接句有名詞子句、關係子句、副詞子句等。


What he said was true.
他所說的都是真的。(當主詞子句)

Its well-known that the sun is bigger than the earth.
太陽比地球大,眾所皆知。(當主詞子句)

The question is how he did it.
問題是他該怎麼做這件事。(當主詞補語)

I hope that you will enjoy your stay here.
我希望你在這裡能生活得很愉快。(當受詞子句)

I have no idea when he will go.
我不知道他什麼時候走。(當同位語子句)

The student who answered the question is my friend.
回答問題的那個學生是我的朋友。(當關係子句)

Ill never forget the days when we spent our summer holidays together.
我永遠不會忘記我們一起度過的這個暑假。(當關係子句)

The place where I met her was a railway station.
我遇見她的地方是火車站。(當關係子句)

Whenever it is his turn to speak, he gets nervous.
每當輪到他發言,他總是很緊張。(當時間副詞子句)

He didnt go to school today because he was ill.
他今天沒去上學是因為他生病了。(表示原因的副詞子句)

If the temperature is below 0°C, water freezes.
如果溫度在0℃以下,水就會結冰。(表示前提的副詞子句)

Ill go where work conditions are difficult.
我願意到條件嚴苛的地方去工作。(表示地點的副詞子句)

I stayed up late last night, so I felt sleepy in class today.
因為昨晚熬夜的關係,今天上課感到很疲倦。(表示結果的副詞子句)

There were so many people in the room that I couldnt get in.
房間裡那麼多人,我進不去。(表示結果的副詞子句)

It was very cold so that the river froze.
因為天氣非常冷,河面結冰了。(表示結果的副詞子句)

Paul is taller than I am.
保羅比我高。(表示比較的副詞子句)

She doesnt run as fast as she used to.
她跑得不如以前快。(表示比較的副詞子句)

Though he drinks a lot, hes in good health.
他雖然很常喝酒,但身體卻很好。(表示讓步的副詞子句)

□ 子句有主詞子句、受詞子句、副詞子句、關係子句、主詞補語子句等,後面將對其進行詳細講解。

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